这些【英语语句】的差异你都了解吗?

一,汉语中没有英语中那么多的曲折变化

1. 英语动词时态的曲折变化在汉语里没有相应的形式。

(1) 当她回来时,她将来看我。

(×)She will see me when she come back.

(√)She will see me when she comes back.

(2) 自从我们分手后,还没遇到什么事。

(×)Nothing happened since we parted.

(√)Nothing has happened since we parted.

(3) 假期已经有一周了。

(×)It is a week since the holidays begin.

(√)It is a week since the holidays began.

(4) 他想去美国,可是没成功。

(×)He wanted to go to America but fail.

(√)He wanted to go to America but failed.

2. 英语名词复数的曲折变化在汉语里没有相应的形式。

(1)他是学校中最优秀的教师之一。

(×)He is one of the most successful teacher in the school.

(√)He is one of the most successful teachers in the school.

(2)他给了我许多劝告。

(×)He gave me many good advices.

(√)He gave me many pieces of good advice.

3. 代词的曲折变化。

最常见的错误是该用宾格的地方用主格。中国学生常常忽略 he 与 him,she 与 her的区别,因为汉语里没有这种区别。如:

(1)讲话的人是他。

(×)The man who spoke was him.

(√)The man who spoke was he.

(2)除他以外,我没有别的朋友。

(×)I have no friend but he.

(√)I have no friend but him.

(3)有人告诉我你生病了,但我忘记了是谁。

(×)Someone told me that you were ill, but I forgot whom.

(√)Someone told me that you were ill, but I forgot who.

(4)这件事是我做的。

(×)It is me that have done this work.

(√)It is I that have done this work.

二,注意中文无而英文有的现象

1. 冠词是英语句子里的一个重要部分。当名词前没有所有格形式时,如果指一类东西中的一个或几个特定事物,要使用定冠词;如果指一类事物中任何一个,就用不定冠词。由于汉语中没有和冠词(a/an/the)相当的词汇,因此在翻译时,要注意在需要的地方使用冠词。

(1)天气很热。

(×)Weather is very hot.

(√)The weather is very hot.

(2)我们在随后的星期去了上海。

(×)We went to Shanghai next week.

(√)We went to Shanghai the next week.

(3)他感冒了,所以他没有来上学。

(×)He stayed away from school because he had cold.

(√)He stayed away from school because he had a cold.

(4)架子上大部分书是小说。

(×)Most of books on shelf are novels.

(√)Most of the books on the shelf are novels.

(5)下午3 时,全体学生在校门口集合,欢迎美国学生。美国学生将参观图书馆、校办厂、实验楼、教学楼和游泳池。

All the students will meet at the school gate at 3︰00 this afternoon and give the American students a warm welcome. The American students will visit the school library, the school factory, the lab building, the classroom building and the swimming pool.

中国学生在做这类练习时,常会丢掉冠词,令人不知所云。

2. 在比较时,英语常用「that of」或「those of」以避免重复,即要把两样相比的东西对称地说出,而汉语却可以省略,其意义已经很清楚。

(1)北京天气比上海冷。

(×)The climate of Beijing is colder than Shanghai.

(√)The climate of Beijing is colder than that of Shanghai.

(2)他的藏书比我的多。

(×)The books he has collected are more than me.

(√)The books he has collected are more than those of mine.

3. 其他中文无而英文有的现象。

(1)句子开头应大写。

(2)用单引号构成名词所有格形式和缩写,如:he』s = he is 或 he has;we』re = we are。

(3)中文没有不定式、动名词。

(4)中文没有虚拟语气。

三,汉语中没有英语「语法功能词」以及句法结构相联系的词

1. 英语中 and 用来连接动词短语或并列句,但连接其他词或句子等时,汉语可以省略与 and 有同样意义与作用的连词。这一差异造成中国学生英译汉或使用英语时经常写出病句。

(1)我到城里买了几部字典。

(×)I went to town, bought some dictionaries.

(√)I went to town and bought some dictionaries.

(2)老师问了我一个问题,我不会回答。

(×)The teacher asked me a question, I couldn』t answer it.

(√)The teacher asked me a question, and/but I couldn』t answer it.

(3)这么冷,我不敢出去。

(×)It』s cold that I』m afraid to go out.

(√)It is so cold that I』m afraid to go out.

(4)我们捡柴火,他们搭帐篷。

(×)We gathered the wood, they set up the tent.

(√)We gathered the wood and they set up the tent.

(5)我没出去,呆在家里看书。

(×)I didn』t go out, I stayed home and read.

(√)I didn』t go out; instead, I stayed home and read.

由(2)~(5) 题可知,逗号在汉语与英语中的作用并非完全一致。英语中句与句之间的联系绝不依靠逗号,而是借助连接词,缺少连接词,句与句之间也就不存在其合理性。

2. either...or;neither...nor;so(...)that 等都与汉语存在差异。汉语中相似的意思在英语中用不同的句法结构表示,这就给中国学生在汉译英的写作上带来了困难。

(1)他什么也不干,睡了一整天。

He didn』t do anything but slept all day.

(2)最近菜和肉都很贵。

Both meat and vegetables are expensive these days.

(3)他不抽烟,也不喝酒。

He neither smokes nor drinks.

(4)你可以坐火车,也可以坐飞机。

You can get there either by train or by plane.

3. 汉语中注重关联词的使用,如「因为……所以……」,「虽然……但是……」,「尽管……还/仍」,但英语却不能对等翻译,且有别的说法。

(1)因为我的车坏在路上,所以我来晚了。

Because my car broke down on the way, I came late.(=The reason why I came late is that my car broke down on the way.)

(2)虽然他很小,但知道得很多。

Though/Although he is young, he knows a lot.(=He is young, but he knows a lot. =Young as he is, he knows a lot.)

4. 英语介词远比汉语介词活跃。

(1)在老师的帮助下,我的英语取得了进步。

(×)Under the teacher』s help I have made progress in my English.

(√)With the teacher』s help, I have made progress in my English.

(2)有人敲门。

(×)Someone is knocking the door.

(√)Someone is knocking at the door.

(3)不要在阳光下读书。

(×)Don』t read under the sun.

(√)Don』t read in the sun.

(4)我支持你。

I support you/I am for you/I agree with you/I am on your side.

四,注意英汉句子结构的差异

1. 汉语句子的六个成分的关系和基本位置可概括为如下一首口诀,以方便记忆:

主谓宾,定状补,主干枝叶分清楚;

基本成分主谓宾,附加成分定状补;

定语多在主语前,谓前为状谓后补;

六者关系辨分明,分析正误心有数。

由于汉英语句有较明显差异,又由于学生较长时间地接触汉语语句结构,由此所形成的观念就不可避免地会对学生的英语学习带来消极影响,产生负作用。

2. 在英语句子中,定语和状语与主、谓、宾的关系,大致可以归纳到下面的模式里:

(定语)—主语—(定语)/〔状语〕—谓语—〔状语〕/(定语)—宾语—<补语>

汉语与英语则有不同。不论定语和状语多么复杂,它们与主、谓、宾的关系,也可以大致归纳到下面的模式里:

(定语)—主语/〔状语〕—谓语—<补语>/(定语)—宾语

由以上汉英两种模式的比较可以看出,英语的定语可以前置,也可以后置。如果定语采用句子形式,不仅要后置,而且还必须用关联词来引导。英语的状语则一般放在句尾或句首,特别是用各种词组作状语的情形更是如此,而汉语的状语通常放在谓语的前面。

(1)五月份能解决这个问题。

We can solve the problem in May.

(2)花一百万美元就能解决这个问题。

We can solve the problem with one million dollars.

(3)苦干能解决这个问题。

We can solve the problem by working hard.

3. 汉语无主语并非是主语省略句,其主语很难用明确的词语补上,而英语中却可以用相应的词补上。

(1)表示「天气」、「距离」、「时间」等。

1,现在几点?

What time is it?

2,我的表是九点十五分。

It is nine fifteen by my watch.

3,今早很冷,午后说不定会下雪。

It is very cold this morning, and it may snow after noon.

4,我家到学校是4公里。

It is four kilometers from my house to our school.

(2)表示说明。

1.七、八月放暑假。

We have summer vacation in July and August.

2.通常六点开灯。

The lights are usually turned on at six.

3.本剧院内禁止吸烟。

Smoking is not allowed in this theatre.

4. 汉语补语和英语状语的比较和对译:

汉语补语和英语状语一样,都修饰谓语。

(1)他写出来了。

He wrote it out.

(2)他写在黑板上。

He wrote it on the blackboard.

(3)他写了三遍。

He wrote it three times.

(4)他写给他的妻子。

He wrote it to his wife.

(5)他写得漂亮。

He wrote it beautifully.

(6)他写得又快又好。

He wrote it both quickly and well.

(7)他写得满头大汗。

He wrote it until sweating all over.

5. 主谓数的一致。

中文不要求主语和动词在人称和数上保持一致,而英文则相当强调这一点。主语和谓语动词应保持数和人称上的一致,这是英语在使用过程中最重要的原则之一。而在汉语中主语和谓语动词则没有这种一致性。无论主语的人称和数如何变化,动词形式没有变化。

(1)我们班学生总人数是40。

(×)The mumber of students in our class are forty.

(√)The mumber of the students in our class is forty.

(2)他或者我打算去公共图书馆。

(×)He or I is going to the public library.

(√)He or I am going to the public library.

(3)他家里人都很健康。

(×)His family is very well.

(√)His family are all well.

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