英文论文写作前期问卷设计解析

留学生在写作研究论文的时候,很多时候都需要提前去做一下问卷调查,而问卷调查事前肯定要设计好问卷才行。而大多数同学都是第一次做问卷调查,可能会有点不熟悉。鉴此,下文就给大家整理了英文论文写作前期问卷设计解析,同学们可以看一下。

A
general introduction to the design of questionnaires for survey research

The
basic process of survey research can be outlined as follows:

1.
define your research aims

2.
identify the population and sample

3.
decide how to collect replies

4.
design your questionnaire

5.
run a pilot survey

6.
carry out the main survey

7.
analyse the data

调查研究的基本步骤包括以上七个方面。

A
crucial part of good research design concerns making sure that the
questionnaire design addresses the needs of the research.

其中关键在于问卷设计需满足学术研究的需要。

Define
Your Research Aims

Start
your survey by setting down the aims for the survey. To define the aims for
academic research you will need to review the relevant literature and you may
need to do some preliminary research amongst your target subjects. Fulfilling
these aims should then drive the design of your questionnaire and help select
questions that are relevant, concise and efficient.

列出调查的目的。事先你需要阅读相关文献,并预先在目标对象中做一些调查。

Identify
the Population and Sample

The
population is simply all the members of the group that you are interested in. A
key issue in choosing the sample relates to whether the members you have chosen
are representative of the population. Often the sample is chosen randomly from
a list that contains all the members of the population.

选取问卷抽查对象的关键在于这些人是否具有代表性。通常可以从人口各组成群体中随机抽取一部分。

Decide
How to Collect Replies

Decide
whether the survey is to be completed by the respondent directly or through an
interviewer, and design the questionnaire, and any other documents,
accordingly. It is important in both circumstances to explain to the potential
respondent why you believe they should answer the questions, doing so
persuasively can improve response rate. Where the questionnaire is administered
by post, or e-mail or some other indirect means, it is usual practice to
provide a letter that explains what the questionnaire is about and why its
completion is of value.

决定收回问卷的方式,可以是当面完成,也可以发送邮件或其他间接的方式,通常需要让接受调查者了解调查的目的和用途。

Questionnaire
Design

Design
of the questionnaire can be split into three elements:

a)
determine the questions to be asked,

b)
select the question type for each question and specify the wording, and

c)
design the question sequence and overall questionnaire layout.

问卷设计内容包括以上三要素。

Decide
on a Layout and Sequence

It
is good practice to ensure that the questionnaire has a title and that the
revision or date of the version is printed on the questionnaire. A brief
introductory statement is useful, especially if the introductory letter could
go adrift. Contact and return information should be included on the
questionnaire. Similarly it is good practice to number or otherwise identify
individual questions for reference purposes.

决定问卷的布局和顺序。问卷应该有一个标题及日期等,还应有简要的介绍,回复信息等。每一张问卷上应标有编号。

Question
Types

Different
types of questions can be used, e.g. open vs. closed,single vs.multiple
responses, ranking, and rating.

Many
advise against using open-ended questions and advocate using closed questions.
However, open questions can be useful. For example, the open question:

What
do you think are the reasons for football hooliganism?

would
elicit a whole range of replies of varying length and articulation.

问题类型包括开放式和封闭式,单项和多项选择,排序和评级等。

Decide
on Question Wording

Some
general rules can be stated on question wording:


Be concise and unambiguous


Avoid double questions


Avoid questions involving negatives


Ask for precise answers


Avoid leading questions

问卷语言应注意上述问题。

Run
a Pilot Survey

Test
the questionnaire on a small sample of your subjects first. If this is not
possible, at least test it on some colleagues or friends. The aim here is to
detect any flaws in your questioning and correct these prior to the main
survey. Having done your pilot survey, you can make amendments that will help
to maximise your response rate and minimise your error rate on answers.

先做一个小范围的试验调查,目的在于发现问卷中的问题,并加以修改。

Carry
Out the Main Survey

Identify
Respondents and Keep Track of Status

A
simple database is useful to keep track of when questionnaires were sent out
and to whom.

Number
Each Questionnaire

Each
individual questionnaire must be uniquely identified by you, preferably before
it is distributed or, to preserve anonymity, afterwards. This identification
could be via a number, or letters and numbers.

Deliver
the Questionnaire

Deadlines
for distribution should have been decided earlier with allowances for sending
out reminders or carrying out follow up calls.

开展正式调查。建立调查对象的数据库,每张问卷需有编号,确定问卷调查的最后完成期限。

Analyse
the Data

A
precursor to analysis is the coding, entry and checking of data. In all
instances data can either be entered direct or imported from other packages
such as Excel, provided the instructions for the receiving package are adhered
to.

数据分析,可直接输入或借助计算机软件。这是进行研究前的关键一步。

以上就是关于英文论文写作前期问卷的设计解析,需要做问卷调查的同学们可以根据上面的内容去设计自己的问卷,想必就没什么问题了。

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