paper代写:如何确定论文的格式与风格?

教授学者们通常会规范写作标准,制定如何撰写硕博士论文与学术文章以及格式要求。学术界所评定的标准植基于以何种撰写方式会被认可,何种撰写方式则会被拒绝。

The community of scholars has rules that govern how dissertations, theses and other academic papers are composed and formatted. 

Identify correct format and style for your paper 论文书写格式与风格

Every academic writer hopes to have a paper published and widely read within the academic community. While that is a reasonable hope, it can be a distracting one during a paper's planning and composition. A paper need satisfy just one reader for success: the classroom instructor who assigned the paper. Failure to pass the muster of that professor precludes broader acceptance.

每位作者都期望论文作品能成功刊登于国际期刊,并受到学界的广泛阅览。虽说这是一个合理的期望,在论文计画与构思的过程中,它却也容易分散你的注意力。其实,论文只需要满足一位读者就可视为成功,那位读者就是:给予你论文题目的课堂教授。教授通常会整理出论文不被接受的普遍原则,以自身经验告诉你,你的论文可被接受或是会被拒绝。

In terms of format and style, this is not as arbitrary as it sounds. The mechanical presentation of a paper is governed largely by universal sets of rules. Individual professors can, and do, slightly tweak the rules to satisfy professional preferences. However, the common rules work to the advantage of all writers by giving to each a uniform structure for presentation of material.

谈到格式与风格,其实没有字面上看来那么严格。学界公认的法则规范了论文制式的呈现方式。教授不但可以,并且能够微调规范,以表现该学术专业领域偏好的论文形式。然而,透过论文制式呈现的架构,的确让许多作者获得普遍正确书写的原则与优势。

So at the outset, the author of a paper must be certain about what format or style is required—not suggested—by the assigning professor. If the class instructor glances at a submitted paper and returns it to the author, it is certain the author has failed to follow a professor's formatting and stylistic instructions. Before content can be evaluated, presentation of the material is evaluated.

所以一开始,论文作者必须了解课堂教授期望论文必备,非选备,的格式与风格。倘若教授对你递交的论文一瞥后就直接退回,很明显的,作者并未按照教授所要求的格式与风格来撰写。在评论你的论文内容前,论文的呈现已第一步被打了分数。

Several styles are used across academia. Some familiar ones include the Modern Language Association (MLA), which is popular in liberal arts and humanities writing; the Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago), which has more general usage; the American Psychological Association (APA ), for social sciences; and the Council of Science Editors (CSE), for scientific papers.

写作风格用于不同的学术领域。举例来说,学界所熟悉的「美国现代语言学会写作手册」(Modern Language Association ,MLA)在人文学科领域广泛采用;「芝加哥格式手册」(Chicago Manual of Style, Chicago)详述完整格式规范与细节;「美国心理学会写作手册」 (American Psychological Association, APA)是社会科学领域普遍采用的格式;「科学编辑委员会」(Council of Science Editors , CSE)主要用在科学领域。

The different styles can vary in their citation requirements and formatting. The writer of a paper must know which style is assigned. Example of differences: The MLA does not require a title page—but the professor might anyway; the APA generally requires a title page , which should be numbered 1; whereas in Chicago usage, if a title page is included, it should not be numbered 1.

不同写作风格,引述与引用的条件与格式也不同,作者必须清楚自己遵循的是那一类风格。举例来说,MLA不需要标题页(封面)-不过,或许你的教授会需要;APA一般是需要标题页,通常在第一页;而Chicago若放标题页,则大多不是第一页。

In-text citations also vary. They range from MLA's strict use of authors' names and publication data in parenthesis to CSE's less complicated use of numbers that link to a reference section. From an academic writer's point of view, there is no best way to format and cite. There is only the required way, as assigned by an individual professor. Carefully heed such instructions.

引述与引用写法也各异。 MLA在引述作者与作品名称方面相当严谨;CSE强调参考文献数字需清楚明确标示等等。从论文作者的观点来看,没有完美的格式与写法,只有被课堂教授需求、要求的写法。作者们务必谨慎留心教授对文体格式的要求与期望。

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