paper代写:如何分类资料并勾勒论文大纲?

教授学者们通常会规范写作标准,制定如何撰写硕博士论文与学术文章以及格式要求。学术界所评定的标准植基于以何种撰写方式会被认可,何种撰写方式则会被拒绝。

The community of scholars has rules that govern how dissertations, theses and other academic papers are composed and formatted. Academic convention has established what is acceptable and what is not.

Organize and group the material and outline the paper 分类资料并勾勒论文大纲

At this point, the author of an academic paper should have chosen a subject and thesis and thoroughly researched it. The author also should have determined what format is required for the paper by the assigning professor, and made certain that enough information has been gathered to satisfy citation requirements. Now it is time to create the structure of the paper. 

在这个准备阶段,作者应已选定研究主题,根据研究论点搜集许多相关资料,并且作者也应已确定指导教授要求的论文格式,妥善准备证明与证据。一切准备就绪后,现在就让我们进入论文的架构。

An academic paper is built around the thesis. Every point made in the paper should support the argument voiced in the thesis. Every statement should be a brick in the argument's foundation. Every assertion should, directly or indirectly, lead the reader to the conclusion summarized in the thesis. (Conversely, if a point has the potential to lead a reader astray, it should be discarded.) 

论文是根据论点来架构内容,每一个论点背后皆需要有支持理论的证据,也就是说,每个引据、每个证明,就像是砖块需一层层堆砌起来,才能稳固论点存在的基础。每一项研究主张都应该以直接或间接的方式,逐步、清楚的引导读者进入论文总结(相反的,若是论点的发展将可能误导读者、迷失论文重点,作者就应当机立断,舍弃这个方向)。

The collected material should be organized, a process that probably began during the collection stage. The material should be arranged by function—for example, introductory material near the top of the list. It also should be grouped according to sub-topic or supporting evidence . This grouping process will reveal any areas of argumentation that are weak and need more research. 

所有收集的资料都要进入整理过程。资料根据不同功能进行分类。例如,介绍、叙述方面的资料,就应放置于资料库的最前面。进而,作者可以次主题或不同的支持论证进行第二层分类。这样分群分类的过程,将有助于掌控现有资讯,是否那些论证薄弱,或者那些方面需要加入更多资讯。

Next comes the outlining of the paper. While the grouped material might suggest an outline, a set of facts can be employed in more than one way. A paper on Copernicus, for example, might chronologically relate his solar system studies, or it might juxtapose his various discoveries with the misconceptions of his peers. Facts are not malleable, but they are moveable. 

接下来进入勾勒论文纲要。从分类的资讯所引导出来的脉络来看,或许已透露出大纲的轮廓。然而,同样的事实论据却可应用于不同的需求与情境。举例来说,同样是以哥白尼的研究为主题,有的人会以时间顺序与他的太阳运行学说为研究方向;有的人也可能以不同于那个时代的观点与角度切入研究。所以,事实尽管无法改变,它却可在你的论文中随需求调整合适的位置。

A professor may suggest a structure for a paper, but usually only in general terms. The content of the paper, as a result of research, ultimately decides the most effective structure. This might be a narrative approach. Or it could be a side- by-side comparison, or a sequential presentation of evidence. In every case, the goal is to assemble the facts into a convincing final argument. 

指导教授或许会要求论文的架构,但通常指的是大方向的论文结构。事实上,论文内容将因研究方向的不同,而产生独特的架构组合。不论是以叙述的手法表现,或是集合所有论点进行比较,或是一系列论据的呈现等等,在每一件论文作品中,首重目的在于有效整合论据并提出令人信服的论点。

Before writing begins, purposefully evaluate the chosen outline. Ask questions. Does it function convincingly? Does it stay on course in support of the thesis? Is it logical and comprehendible? Does it sail from introduction to conclusion without running aground somewhere? Can it be strengthened by alteration, or addition? Be sure. The outline becomes the blueprint for the paper. 

在撰写论文之前,仔细检视确定好的纲要,好好回答下列的问题:这样的内容铺陈具有说服力吗?这些论据有成功的佐证论点吗?内容符合逻辑且容易了解吗?从介绍到结论的阅读过程中,有正确引导读者、不使读者迷失困惑吗?论文是否还有再加强或再修改的空间与必要?一定要确实检视上列问题。别忘了,纲要是论文写作成功的重要蓝图。

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