Since the last few decades, a number of major trends have been involved and emerged in theorizing international relations following the related academic discipline mainly in the United States of America along with several parts of continental Europe (Brown, 2001). However, between these considerably current developments in the theory of international relations, it is important to know the limit and nature of this concept for being advanced as theory.
Under the consideration of international relations, there are a number of theoretical perspectives or general theories, one of which is Realism. Also referred to as political realism, it provides a view of the international political background that lay stress on the conflictual and competitive side (Bahgat, 2011). This most contrasts the concept of liberalism or idealism that holds the tendency to lay emphasis on cooperation. Realists are known to be considering the principal performers in the arena of international background for being states, which show concern towards individual security, taking actions to persuade their individual national interests, and have been struggling a lot for gaining power. However, considering the negative view of realism, huge emphasis is laid upon self- interest and power often under scepticism with respect to the significance of norms and ethics to relations between the states (Cawkwell, 1997). In short, it can be stated that in context with international relations and affairs, realism lays emphasis to endure the propensity for the occurrence of conflict amongst the states.
However, since recent times, realism has been facing several criticisms since the past 20 years as many criticise it to be irrelevant to the world and the simplified terms used for describing and systematizing the world. There is no denial in the fact that like all of the other theories related to international relations, there are certain imperfections of realism as well. And, the theory cannot be claimed for considering universal issues and providing universal solution (Jackson, 2003). As per Niccolo Machiavelli, the classic realist thinker, the desire for having more power is the main base for the theory of realism and has a strong root with the flawed features of humanity that present the nature of international relations.