新西兰论文代写：Growth of Income Inequality and its Causes
Between the years 2000-2006 despite and economic recovery, the number of Americans languishing in poverty increased by a significant 15 percent. By the year 2006, more than 33 million workers in the U.S were earning an average hourly rate of less than $10 which is below the poverty level in supporting a family of four. The working conditions of low-wage workers are also not favorable as they are not provided sick days, health insurance, or pension cover from their employers. Within the same period, there was a 13 percent increase in corporate profits and 15 percent worker productivity, yet the wages for the workers remained flat. From this perspective, the rich got richer when compared to the poor. Between 1979 and 2007, there was an increase in household income in which the top fifth experienced a 65 percent rise compared to the bottom fifth with a meagre 18 percent rise. Therefore, for the rich they increased their wealth and their piece of pie increased taking some of the shares from everyone else. This is the current economic situation which leads to more income inequality.
Some of the highlighted causes for the income inequality are technology and education, globalization and trade, and finally government policies. The technology and education is related to income inequality as there is a high demand for workers with high levels of skills and education and therefore, they are offered large wage premiums. The skill premium results from the lack of available skills to meet with the increasing demand. The higher wage premiums consistently affect the wages of other employees without skills and education. Globalization and trade has been highlighted as cause for income inequality in America due to the increased trade and offshoring activities of large U.S corporations. The increased around the world has allowed increased imports into the U.S economy hence leading to job loss to similar goods produced within the U.S. Offshoring has also led to decreased employment opportunities and wages. Low wages and low rates of employment increase the inequality gap. On the other hand, government policies have also played part in income inequality discourse as policies were passed that reduced wages and employment. Some of the policies since the late 1970s which led to increased income inequality include de-unionization, deregulation, tax changes, the shareholder revolution, federal monetary policies among many others (Baranoff, 2015). However, solutions for the above causes can be implemented but it requires the contribution of all stakeholders from the government, employees, employers, organizations, and trade unions.
In implementing solutions for the above causes of income inequality in America, the root problem is to be identified for better effectiveness of the solutions. In the technology and education aspect, the lack of education is the primary driver. Therefore, by increasing education to the population as well as job training opportunities, this will lead to higher production of high skilled labor. The second cause of trade and globalization is to be solved by policy solutions which will increase the competitiveness of U.S exports and depreciation of the U.S dollar. In tackling the cause of government policies that increase income inequality, policy change is recommended in which will lead to increased unionization, raising minimum wages, supervision of Wall Street, and a maintained full-employment focus in monetary policy.
新西兰论文代写：Response of Occupy Movement on Income Inequality in America
The Occupy Movement has been identified as both a social and economic movement. Started on September 17, 2011 it has spread globally ever since. The Occupy Wall Street movement is characterized as an opposition movement as it opposes the economic and social status. The movement is leaderless and it includes people from all races, gender, and political divides as it brings solidarity and social activism in fighting for economic and social equality between the 1 percent and the 99 percent. The aspects of the movement have brought the awareness of global inequality into discussion and it has hence led to similar movements around the world under the same umbrella name but specific to their environment. The movement has also been involved in offering education to the masses around the world, and encouraging them stand up against the corporate greed. The actions of the Occupy group have been recorded in every continent where the protestors set up camps, tents, and various means of protest in the center of financial districts .
One of the ways the Occupy Movement is tackling income inequality, is by trying to educate the masses hence reducing the mass exploitation of the 99 percent, and to find ways to redistribute income fairly, as well as improving the abilities of the 99 percent to improve their economic conditions. Revolutions can be used in achieving redistribution of resources and physical capital (Kelley & Klein, 1981). In an example provided by Kelley and Klein (1981) it involves the 1952 Bolivian revolution in which the peasant farmers felt exploited by the government and revolted against their government. The revolution was involved violence where the peasant farmers were able to defeat the National Army hence taking control of the country capital. The take over from the government helped them to take actions and redistributed wealth among the country farmers and peasants. The Occupy Movement and the Bolivian Revolution are similar in many aspects apart from the key difference of violence. The Bolivian revolutionaries took violent measures to achieve their goals.
The Occupy Movement’s goal is to create a more egalitarian society. The protestors believe that this can only be achieved through enforcing stricter regulations on large financial institutions and corporations on Wall Street. The problem with this solution is that it will cause significant loses to the top 1 percent hence it does not settle well with them and this has led to the Movement been repressed with extreme violence at times. The protestors are holding general assemblies as they plan their way forward in fighting for equal representation of their concerns as well.