12个获得学术认可的论文撰写技巧之论文的理想语气:「第三人称」与「主动」

在海外留学,论文写作总是必不可少的,要写好一篇论文,也总会有一些你所不知道的写作技巧,一起来看看博优为你整理的12个获得学术认可的论文写作技巧吧。

12 Recommendations to Help you Submit a Conventional and Acceptable Paper Tip 6: The ideal voice for a paper: third-person and active
12个获得学术认可的论文撰写技巧之六:论文的理想语气:「第三人称」与「主动」

教授学者们通常会规范写作标准,制定如何撰写硕博士论文与学术文章以及格式要求。学术界所评定的标准植基于以何种撰写方式会被认可,何种撰写方式则会被拒绝。本专栏提出「12个获得学术认可的论文撰写技巧」,帮助你写出符合规范与认可标准的文章。
The community of scholars has rules that govern how dissertations, theses and other academic papers are composed and formatted. Academic convention has established what is acceptable and what is not. Following is one of 12 recommendations to help you submit a conventional and acceptable paper.

Tip 6 – The ideal voice for a paper: third-person and active
技巧六:论文的理想语气:「第三人称」与「主动」

Having resolved to write purposefully and to employ a writing style that emphasizes clear and vital language, the author of an academic paper next must address the mechanics of the language. One of these issues is choosing the appropriate “voice” to communicate the substance of the paper. This is essential. Finding its “voice” is central to a paper's function and effectiveness.
下了决心要写出目标明确、有重点、有活力的文章后,身为论文作者下一步要面对的就是,语言的处理技巧,其一就是,必须用适当「语气」传达文章内容。这个原则相当重要,能否运用适当的语气,关系到文章的作用与表达的效果。

A letter to a friend is written in casual language, while a scholarship application is formal and respectful. But an academic paper is authoritative. A paper advances an original or unusual idea in a one-on-one forum; advancement depends largely upon the perceived authority of the person voicing the idea. If the written voice resonates with convincing force, it can prevail.
写给朋友的信笺,遣词可较为随意;奖学金申请函,则需正式且恭敬。谈到学术论文,则语气必须够权威。论文是在一对一的版面上传达原创或独特的想法,其成效取决于作者的论述语气是否具权威性。如果写作的文字充满说服力,内容自然会被接受。

The best way to convey clout is to write the paper from a third-person point of view. This means a writer should not use “I” or “you” or “we” sentence structures, which are perfect for ordinary conversation and quite imperfect for scholarly presentation. Employing the less intimate third-person objective voice lets the collected persuasive material speak for itself.
要让文句切中要点,最好的方法就是用第三人称写作。换句话说,不要采用“I”、 “you” 、 “we”开头的句子。这些句子用在一般对话中似无不妥,但用在学术表达则显得有失稳当。第三人称句子读起来少了亲近、也较客观,更能突显文章的整体论述。

The third-person perspective also conveys authority because it increases the “distance” between an author and the subject of a paper. The writer disappears when “I” is dropped from the text. Similarly, the reader is not dragged into it when “you ” is absent. The resulting vacuum is filled by the influential “voices” of footnoted experts, laboratory data, and recorded experience.
第三人称口吻也较具权威,因为作者与主题间的距离,在第三人称下会显得更远。少了主词“I”之后,作者会从文章中消失;同样地,没有了“you”,读者也不会被拖进文字里。填补空缺的将是更具说服力的「声音」,像是钻研考据的专家、实验数据、经验记录等。

The other voice rule in writing a paper is to use active language—though not always. Passive sentence construction does maintain desired “distance.” (Example: “The test was repeated four times,” rather than “I repeated the test four times. ”) However, an active voice propels a paper. (“Four tests produced identical results.”) Don't be lulled and dulled by “distance” considerations.
论文语气的另一个规则,就是使用主动句—不过并非必然。被动句的确可以创造出理想的距离(如「实验重复了四次」就比「我做了四次实验」来得好);但主动语气可以推动文章的起伏与节奏(如「四次实验的结果相同」)。所以,不要为了创造距离,让文章变得拖沓呆滞。

After the writer of an academic paper has exhaustively searched sources and validated a thesis, presenting it in a chatty, overly personal and unprofessional voice is such a wasted opportunity. The mechanics of effective presentation are not difficult to employ. Keep objective distance between writer and subject. Let the facts speak for themselves. Actively make the case.
已经尽己所能搜寻参考资料,用尽心力证明自己的论点,若是以闲话家常的态度与不专业的语气来呈现作品,着实浪费了先前付出的诸多努力。想要有效地表达想法其实不难,只要掌握以下重点:保持作者与读者间的客观距离,让事实昭然若揭,用主动句坚定立场。

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